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Monitoring Volcanic Hazards through Multi-Source Satellite Imagery.
Volcanic eruptions produce a wide-range of hazardous phenomena spanning from lava flows, pyroclastic flow to volcanic ash emissions, with impact ranging from local to continental. Satellite monitoring of active volcanoes is an ever-growing technological solution for volcanic hazard assessment, offering low cost, high temporal resolution and high spatial coverage measurements. A comprehensive space-based strategy for quantitative volcano hazard monitoring that integrates the most recent satellite imagery products with physic-based models of eruptive processes is presented here. Time-averaged discharge rates (TADRs) obtained from multispectral satellite data (e.g. MODIS, SEVIRI) are complemented and fine-tuned with the time-varying evolution of lava flow emplacement derived from higher spatial resolution satellite data (e.g. Landsat8/9, Sentinel2), as well as the flow thickness variations, retrieved from satellite stereo pairs (e.g. Pléiades, Skysat). All these space-derived parameters are used as input and validation tags for the numerical modelling of lava flow scenarios. The strategy was successfully applied to different volcanoes worldwide such as Fogo, Nabro, Etna, Cumbre Vieja.