Multi-parametric and multi-layer study of 2021-2022 Hunga Tonga eruptions.
D'Arcangelo S., Bonforte A., De Santis A., Maugeri R., Perrone L., Soldani M., Brogi F., Calcara M., Campuzano S.A., Cianchini G., Del Corpo A., Di Mauro D., Ippolito A., Lepidi S., Marchetti D., Montagna C., Nardi A., Orlando M., Piscini A., Regi M., Sabbagh D.
A unique series of eruptions in history took place at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano starting on 20 December 2021, with the main explosion on 15 January 2022. Propagation of pressure waves from this last event produced global effects, causing relevant anomalies in atmosphere and ionosphere. We focused our attention on both pre- and post-eruptive effects observed in the lithosphere, with a seismological analysis; in the atmosphere, affected by the release of trace gases; and in the ionosphere, through the analyses of magnetic field and electron density from Swarm and CSES-01 satellites, ionospheric electron density from ionosonde data, and Total Electron Content from GNSS ground stations. Our comprehensive study confirms the coupling among the different geolayers and gives us a better understanding of this complex phenomenon.